It is clear that human can no longer function as optimally without the help of electrical appliances. The use of electricity is embedded so deeply in our day to day activities, starting from when you just wake up to when you are going to bed. Various technologies are developed so that electricity can be delivered to your more efficiently.
Electrical grid is the common method of delivery. It serves certain purposes and work in a way that allows you to use electricity for fueling various appliances. The grid itself is a network system with an aim to carry power produced by provider to consumers for every day usage.
There are several components which build this system. The first component is the generator, where the energy is generated. Usually in an electrical grid that serves people in massive scale, there will be plenty energy generators included in the system.
In past, generator produced energy usually fueled with fossil fuels. Nowadays, though, there is an understanding that fossil fueled electricity contributes to pollution and climate change. Because of that greener power sources, such as solar panel, are easy to find these days.
The second part of an electrical grid is substation. There are plenty substations included in the system. It is important to include this component in an electrical grid. Substation helps transforming voltage from low to high (if it is for transmission) and high to low (if it is for distribution).
Determining the location for each substation is quite tricky, especially if the surrounding area is crowded. It is because substation is rather sizable and it can harm people who get too close. Several types of substation exist, including collector, transmitter, distributor, switcher, and converter.
Lines are definitely crucial in any electrical grid. Basically, two kinds of lines are used in the system. The first kind is called transmission line. It is used to transmitting electrical power from generator to various smaller units. The line carries voltage and current from one place to another. In order to gauge the performance of a transmission line, you need to look at four different parameters: conductivity, inductivity, resistance, and capacity.
Another type of line which you would see in an electrical grid is called distribution line. It connects various distribution voltages to customers. Usually, the distribution voltages will be connected to a transformer which is going to transform the high voltage electricity to smaller units that can be utilized in houses. However, in the case of customers that require high electricity consumption, they will be directly connected to distribution voltages. It might be for large enterprises or manufacturers.
So, seeing how complex an electrical grid system is, how does it work? First of all, the generator is going to generate voltage and current. It can be fossil fuel, solar, or even wind powered. The raw electricity is the going through transmission lines towards substations.